Vaccine-preventable diseases¹

During a trip, the probabilities and risks of contracting diseases increase due to several factors, such as: differences in incidence, presence of mosquitoes and other vectors (in tropical areas), access to drinking water, level of vaccination coverage in the country of destination, exposure to contact with animals, among others. For this reason, it is important to consult a health specialist before the trip to learn about the necessary precautions. See below some of the diseases that can be prevented by vaccination.

    • Bacterial disease.

    • Transmission occurs: person-to-person through oral or respiratory droplets, close physical contact, and rarely by contact with contaminated objects or materials.

    • Cutaneous diphtheria is common in tropical countries, and contact with skin wounds secretions may transmit the infection in these environments.

    • Generally affected areas are the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract, skin or rarely other mucous membranes like eye, ear or vulva.

    • Common symptoms are: mild fever, sore throat, difficulty to swallow, malaise, loss of appetite and, if the larynx is affected, hoarseness.

    • Booster vaccination is recommended for all adults every 10 years.

    • Bacterial disease.

    • Transmission occurs by contaminated food and water.

    • The onset of the disease is progressive, with a gradual increment of fatigue and fever in the first 4 days of the disease.

    • Human beings are the only reservoir of these bacteria.

    • Occasionally, it produces a transitory skin eruption, with pink spots in the trunk.

    • Typhoid fever severe complications generally occur after 2-3 weeks of infection and may include hemorrhage or intestinal pierce life-threatening.

    • Viral disease

    • Transmission occurs through a mosquito bite chronically infected with the virus, mainly Aedes or Haemagogus spp mosquito.

    • Disease occurs as a nonspecific syndrome flu-type with a sudden fever onset, shivers, headache, back pain, myalgia, adynamia, nausea and vomiting.

    • After a brief remission of hours to a day, approximately 15 % of patients develop a more severe phase of the disease.

    • The proportion of fatal cases with hepatorenal dysfunction is 20 % to 50 %.

    • Viral disease caused by the infection of the respiratory tract by the influenza virus.

    • Transmission occurs person-to-person, mainly through respiratory droplets.

    • Transmission also may occur through contact with contaminated surfaces, where the virus remains active up to 72 hours.

    • Common symptoms include fever, muscle pain, headache, malaise, non-productive cough, sore throat, vomiting and rhinitis.

    • In both northern and southern hemispheres, influenza outbreaks occur during winter months.

    • In the tropics, influenza activity occurs all year long.

    • Viral disease

    • Transmission occurs through direct contact person-to-person (fecal-oral transmission); contaminated water, or food treated with contaminated water, improperly cooked, or frozen contaminated.

    • The incubation period has a 28-day average (range 15-50 days).

    • Infection can be asymptomatic or vary in severity, since a mild disease that lasts 1 to 2 weeks, to a severely disabling illness that lasts several months.

    • Clinic manifestations include the sudden appearance of fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, and abdominal discomfort, followed shortly by yellowing of the skin (jaundice).

    • Viral disease

    • Transmission occurs through contact with contaminated blood, blood products, and other body fluids (such as semen).

    • The infection mainly affects the liver and typical symptoms include general malaise, fatigue, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and jaundice.

    • Acute hepatitis B infection progresses to chronic infection in 30% to 90% of infected people such as infants or young children.

    • Bacterial disease

    • Transmission occurs person-to-person by close contact with respiratory secretions of an individual with symptomatic disease or asymptomatic carrier.

    • Generally, the disease occurs between 1 and 10 days after exposure and presented as meningitis in ≥50 % of cases.

    • Generally, the disease occurs between 1 and 10 days after exposure and presented as meningitis in ≥50 % of cases.

    • The onset of the clinical picture is rapid and sudden, and can reach a fatal outcome in less than 48 hours.

    • Bacterial disease

    • Transmission occurs person-to-person, through close contact through respiratory droplets.

    • The main clinical symptoms of pneumococcal disease are pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis.

    • Common symptoms are sudden fever onset, pleuritic pain in the chest, cough with purulent or blood-tinged sputum, and dyspnea.

    • In the elderly, initial symptoms may be fever, shortness of breath, or altered mental status.

    • Enfermedad de origen viral


    • La transmisión ocurre vía gotitas respiratorias, saliva, o contacto con objetos o materiales contaminados.


    • Las paperas son una enfermedad sistémica aguda que se presenta clásicamente con hinchazón unilateral o bilateral de las glándulas parótidas


    • El inicio de la enfermedad suele ser inespecífico, con síntomas como fiebre, dolor de cabeza, malestar general, mialgia y anorexia

    • Bacterial disease

    • Transmission occurs person-to-person through respiratory aerosol droplets or by direct contact with respiratory secretions.

    • The definition of the clinical case for pertussis includes cough during ≥2 weeks with paroxysms, whoop and posttussive vomiting.

    • The immunity of childhood vaccination and natural diseases decrease over time; therefore, adolescents and adults should receive booster vaccination to maintain protection.

    • Viral disease that corresponds to an acute, progressive, and potentially fatal encephalomyelitis.

    • Transmission occurs by the saliva inoculation during the biting of an infected animal with rabies.

    • Pain and numbness or tingling at the site of exposure are the first symptoms of the disease.

    • The symptoms frequently develop after several weeks or months after exposure.

    • In humans, the disease starts when the virus invades the nervous system and ends in acute fatal encephalitis.

    • Bacterial disease

    • Transmission occurs person-to-person through respiratory aerosol droplets. Infected people usually can be contagious 4 days before until 4 days after the onset of the eruption.

    • The incubation period varies from 7 to 21 days since the exposure until the onset of fever.

    • The eruption usually appears about 14 days after exposure.

    • Symptoms include fever, conjunctivitis, coryza, cough, and small patches with white or bluish-white centers on the oral mucosa.

    • Bacterial disease

    • Transmission occurs by contact with contaminated objects through skin wound or injuries.

    • "Tetanus prone" wounds include those contaminated with human or animal soil, droppings, or saliva; punctures, burns, crush injuries, or necrotic tissue injuries.

    • Symptoms may include muscle stiffness and spasms, often in the jaw and neck.

    • Severe tetanus can drive to respiratory insufficiency and death.

References

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Travel Guide Healthy Travel. Disponible en: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/infographic-cdc-guide-healthy-travelJuly 4th, 2019..

  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Travel diseases - Infectious Diseases Related to Travel: Diphtheria. Disponible en: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/diphtheriaJuly 4th, 2019..

  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Travel diseases - Infectious Diseases Related to Travel: Typhoid, Paratyphoid fever. Disponible en https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/typhoid-paratyphoid-feverJuly 4th, 2019..

  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Travel diseases - Infectious Diseases Related to Travel: Yellow Fever. Disponible en https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/yellow-feverJuly 4th, 2019..

  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Travel diseases - Infectious Diseases Related to Travel: Influenza. Disponible en https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/influenzaJuly 4th, 2019..

  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Travel diseases - Infectious Diseases Related to Travel: Hepatitis A. Disponible en https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/hepatitis-aJuly 4th, 2019..

  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Travel diseases - Infectious Diseases Related to Travel: Hepatitis B. Disponible en h https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/hepatitis-bJuly 4th, 2019..

  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Travel diseases - Infectious Diseases Related to Travel: Meningococcal Disease. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/meningococcal-diseaseJuly 4th, 2019..

  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Travel diseases - Infectious Diseases Related to Travel: Pneumococcal Disease. Disponible en: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/pneumococcal-diseaseJuly 4th, 2019..

  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Travel diseases - Infectious Diseases Related to Travel: Mumps. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/mumpsJuly 4th, 2019..

  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Travel diseases - Infectious Diseases Related to Travel: Pertussis. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/pertussisJuly 4th, 2019..

  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Travel diseases - Infectious Diseases Related to Travel: Rabies. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/rabiesJuly 4th, 2019..

  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Travel diseases - Infectious Diseases Related to Travel: Measles. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/measles-rubeolaJuly 4th, 2019..

  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Travel diseases - Infectious Diseases Related to Travel: Tetanus. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/tetanusJuly 4th, 2019..